Pronoun

What is a Pronoun?

A word used in place of a noun is known as a pronouns

OR

A word that takes the place of a noun is called a pronoun. 

Merriam-Webster Dictionary says that any of a small set of words in a language that are used as substitutes for nouns or noun phrases and whose referents are named or understood in the context

Collins Dictionary says that a pronoun is a word that you use to refer to someone or something when you do not need to use a noun, often because the person or thing has been mentioned earlier.

Examples:-  You, he, we, I, me, them, it, she, our, hers, him etc.

Types of Pronoun

  1. Personal Pronoun
  2. Reflexive Pronoun
  3. Emphatic or Intensive Pronoun
  4. Demonstrative Pronoun
  5. Interrogative Pronoun
  6. Relative Pronoun
  7. Possessive Pronoun
  8. Indefinite Pronoun

1. Personal Pronoun

A pronoun used for three persons is known as Personal Pronoun OR

A pronoun refers to a person or thing is known as Personal Pronoun.

According to Merriam Webster Dictionary, a pronoun (such as I, you, or they) that expresses a distinction of person.

Personal pronouns, such as I, we, he, and them, change their forms to reflect person, number, and case.

Person Personal pronouns have different forms for the first person, second person, and third person.

Number Pronouns can be singular or plural.

Case Personal pronouns change their forms depending on how they are used in a sentence. Each pronoun has three cases: subject, object, and possessive.

Personal Pronouns

                                                                          Subject                    Object                

Singular First Person         I       me
  Second Person       you      you
  Third Person   he, she, it   him, her, it
Plural First Person        we         us
  Second Person        you        you
  Third Person        they        them
First Person

A pronoun used for the person speaking is known as the first person.

Examples:  I, we

Second Person

A pronoun used for the person spoken to is known as the second person.

Examples: you

Third Person

A pronoun used for the person spoken of is known as the third person.

Examples: he, she, it, they

Subject Pronoun

A pronoun used as a subject of the verb is known is a subject pronoun.

Examples: I, we, you, he, she, it, they

More Examples:

  1. I hit the ball hard.
  2. We love playing tennis.
  3. You are my first friend.
  4. He speaks well.
  5. She baked a pancake for the children.
  6. My pet bird loves singing. It sings beautifully.
  7. They did not attend the last lesson.

Object Pronoun

A pronoun used as the object of the verb or object of the preposition is known as the object pronoun.

Examples: me, us, you, him, her, it, them

More Examples:

  1. Granny told me a story.
  2. They kept us waiting.
  3. We saw you yesterday in Souq Waqif.
  4. Mother is waiting for her.
  5. Father wrote a letter to him.
  6. I taught them English.
  7. Give it to me.

Pronoun and its antecedent:

Now you have the idea what a pronoun is. The antecedent is a noun or a group of words a pronoun refers.

Example:

1. “Many people love jogging. It helps them stay healthy”.

In this sentence, ‘people’ is the antecedent of ‘them’. And ‘jogging’ is the antecedent of ‘it’.

2. “His mother is a doctor: she runs a private clinic”.

Here, ‘mother’ is the antecedent of ‘she’.

3. “Ahmed invited us to the party. He told us to bring some colourful balloons”.

Here ‘Ahmed’ is the antecedent of ‘he’.

4. “If the thief is caught, he will be taken to the court”.

Here ‘thief’ is the antecedent of ‘he’.

5. We went to a new mall. It is very big.

Here ‘mall‘ is the antecedent of ‘it’.

2. Reflexive Pronoun

A pronoun used with ‘self’ or ‘selves to refer the same person or thing as a subject of the verb is called a reflexive pronoun.

According to Your Dictionary,

A reflexive pronouns is used when the subject and the object of a sentence are the same.

According to Collins Dictionary,

A reflexive pronoun is a pronoun such as ‘myself’ which refers back to the subject of a sentence or clause.

Examples:

  1. She saw herself in the mirror.
  2. One must know himself or herself.
  3. You blamed yourself for the delay.
  4. Boys hurt themselves during the game.
  5. We hid ourselves behind the bushes.

3. Emphatic Pronoun

A pronoun used for the sake of emphasis is known as an emphatic pronoun. It is also called the intensive pronoun.

According to Your Dictionary,

Intensive pronouns emphasize or intensify nouns and pronouns. They’re also called emphatic pronouns. Each title is quite appropriate, as you’ll see.

According to Miriam webster

A pronoun that emphasizes a preceding noun or another pronoun.

Examples: 

  • I myself drew this map.
  • They repaired the car themselves.
  • The princess herself welcomed the guests.
  • I killed the snake by myself.
  • We ourselves talked to the principal.

4. Demonstrative Pronoun/Adjective

A demonstrative pronoun is a pronoun used to point out the person or thing we talk about. They are identical to demonstrative adjectives such this, these, that and those.

Examples:

  1. This is your book.
  2. These are his books.
  3. That was a pine tree.
  4. Those were tennis players.
  5. These are ducks.
  6. This is my parrot.
  7. These are my favourite roses.

Note: As mentioned above these words may be used as Adjectives with nouns and they are known as demonstrative adjectives. They function as modifiers.

Examples:

  1. This book is costly.
  2. These books are his.
  3. That tree was a pine.
  4. Those players are tired.
  5. I will buy these ducks.
  6. She wants to buy this parrot.
  7. These roses are my favourite.

5. Interrogative Pronoun

An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. These are who, whom, whose, what and which.

  1. Who…………. is used for a person as a subject.
  2. Whom………..is used for a person as an object.
  3. Whose………. is used in the possessive case.
  4. Which……….. is used for both  persons or things.
  5. What…………..is used for things.               

Examples:

  1. Who wrote this book?
  2. Who is playing in the jungle?
  3. Who is known as the father of biology?
  4. Whom did you meet?
  5. Whom did you send the gift?
  6. Whom did you call to fix the car?
  7. Whose are these red roses?
  8. Whose drawing is the best?
  9. Whose model won the prize?
  10. What was she doing in the back yard?
  11. What does your father do?
  12. Which book do you like most?
  13. Which is the longest river in Pakistan?
  14. What is your hobby?
  15. What did she give you?

6. Relative Pronoun

A relative pronoun is used to describe the person or thing you are talking about.

OR

A pronoun used to combine or relate sentences or clauses together is known as a relative pronoun.

OR

A pronoun that introduces a relative clause is called a relative pronoun.

Examples:

Commonly used relative pronouns are who, whom, whose, which, and that.

More Examples:

  1. I have a friend who loves junk food.
  2. The police officer who caught the robber is my brother.
  3. The oldman whom you helped is our neighbour.
  4. She found the person whom she wanted to interview.
  5. The man whose daughter died in an accident is a famous poet.
  6. This is the book that I wanted.
  7. This is the student that I talked about.
  8. The poem which I read was simply the best.
  9. Whoever runs the fastest wins the race.
  10. Do not believe him whatever explanation he gives.

7. Possessive Pronoun

A pronoun that shows ownership is known as a possessive pronoun.

OR

A pronoun which we use to show possession or ownership is known as a possessive pronoun.

Possessive Pronouns can be used in two ways or they have two form- one is used before the noun whereas the other stands alone. The one that is used before the noun is also known as Possessive Adjectives such as my, our, his, her, your, its and their. Those which stand alone are mine, ours, his, hers, yours and theirs.

Examples:

  1. My laptop is new.
  2. Our school is the best in the town.
  3. These are your books.
  4. His car is old.
  5. This is her necklace.
  6. The dog bit its tail.
  7. The passengers lost their luggage.

All the above sentences have the pronouns used before nouns and therefore, they are also known as possessive adjectives.

  • This laptop is mine.
  • The best school in the town is ours.
  • These books are yours.
  • That old car is his.
  • This necklace is hers.
  • That luggage is theirs.

The possessive pronouns in the above sentences stand alone.

Note: Do not use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns.

8. Indefinite Pronoun

A pronoun used to talk about a person or thing indefinitely is known as an Indefinite Pronoun.

According to Merriam Webster, indefinite pronouns, such as everybody, either, none, and something do not refer to a specific person or thing and typically refer to an unidentified or unfamiliar person or thing.

Examples:

  1. One of my teachers is from Pakistan.
  2. None of his friends are very smart.
  3. No one tried to help me.
  4. No body could solve this puzzle.
  5. Nothing can be gained without hardwork.
  6. Some failed the entrance test.
  7. I saw someone standing at the door.
  8. We need to do something.
  9. Somebody took my science book.
  10. Several of the students are absent today.
  11. Many of the students did not pass the exam.
  12. Few were courageous among them.