Verb

Verb

A word which is used to describe an action, a state of being of existence or possession.

A verb is an essential part of any sentence that indicate what subject (a person or thing) is doing or what person or thing is.

Examples:

  1. The sun rises in the east.
  2. Boys are playing fotball at the moment.
  3. She wrote this poem.
  4. Girls will sing the national song.
  5. The door opens.

a)  A verb tells what is done to a person or thing.

Examples:

  1. They were invited to tea.
  2. A new bridge is being built.
  3. Robbers were caught.
  4. She will be awarded.
  5. The chair was broken

b)  It tells what a person or thing is.

Examples:

  1. My father is a doctor.
  2. She is a student.
  3. They were Americans.
  4. Roses are beautiful.
  5. Water is liquid.

c) It also tells us about the state of being or possession.

Examples:

  1. They are at the bus stop.
  2. We are in the classroom.
  3. Players are in the gym.
  4. She has a pet cat.
  5. You have an expensive watch.

Types of Verbs

  1. Main & Helping Verbs
  2. Action  & Linking Verbs
  3. Transitive & Intransitive Verbs
  4. Finite & Non-Finite Verbs
  5. Regular & Irregular Verbs

1. Main & Helping Verbs

Main Verb

A verb in a clause or sentence or the head verb of the verb phrase is called main verb. Both action and linking verbs are examples of the main verbs.

Note:- A main verb can be alone in a sentence or it may be a head verb in a verb phrase. Simple Present and Simple Past have the main verbs stand alone while in all other verb-tenses the main verb is helped by a helping verb.Main verb can be an action verb or linking verb.

Examples:

  1. We go to school five days a week.
  2. They bought a new car last week.
  3. She is feeding her pet cat at the movement.
  4. They will visit you soon.
  5. She has submitted her assignment before time.
  6. She is a teacher.
  7. This pizza tastes delicious.
  8. The cave appears extremely dark.
  9. They have been working in their garden since morning.
  10. She seemed unhappy.

Note:- The words in bold in the above sentences are main verbs.

Helping Verb

A verb used to help the action or linking verb is known as  helping verb.

Note:- When a helping verb or verbs are used with the main verb, the group of those verbs is called a verb phrase.

Examples:

  1. She is learning a poem.
  2. They were singing a song.
  3. She will buy a pair of new shoes for the party.
  4. A movie was being watched.
  5. We have been waiting for hours.
  6. She will have bought a new cell phone.
  7. The children will be playing in the rain.
  8. They will have been working on the new project.
  9. She was arrested.
  10. They have been invited to tea.

Note:-  The underlined words in each one of the above sentences are helping verbs where as a group of  words in bold type is a verb phrase.

2. Action & Linking Verbs

Action Verb

A word that expresses an action is called an action verb or doing words are action verbs.

The action or doing word tells us what the subject (person or thing) is doing or what is done to a person or thing (object). Common examples of action verbs are bite, dig, read, write, jump, work, swim, hang, beat, learn, begin, do, run, fight etc.

Linking Verb

On the other hand, a verb is called linking verb when it connects the subject of a sentence to a noun or an adjective in the predicate or a verb that requires the help of a word or words to complete its meaning.

A linking verb is also known as a verb of incomplete predication or copular verb. Common examples of linking verbs are be (am, is, are, was, were, been, being, will be), apper, seem, taste, sound, look, smell, become, grow, stay, turn, remain etc.Some linking verbs may also be used as action verbs.

Note:-  When a noun follows a linking verb and tells what the subject is, is known as predicate noun or predicate nominative, and when an adjective that comes after a linking verb and describes the subject is called predicate adjective.

Examples:

  1. Wafa is a teacher.                                                 Linking
  2. You ate all the bananas.                                       Action
  3. We slept soudly last night.                                   Action
  4. I attended a seminar in Doha.                              Linking
  5. They looked tired.                                                Linking
  6. This flat appears clean.                                        Linking
  7. Who bought these furniture?                               Action
  8. She is very friendly.                                              Linking
  9. The children are jumping.                                   Action
  10. The water turned muddy after heavy rainfall.   Linking

3. Transitive & Intransitive Verbs

Transitive Verb

An action verb which has a direct object object or both direct and an indirect object is called a transitive verb. A transitive verb can be used both in active form and passive form.

Many of the verbs are used are always transitive while others are used as intransitive, and there are some which can be used both transitive and intransitive.

Some of the most common transitive verbs are bring, bite, lend, buy, show, refuse, learn, break, teach send etc.

Examples:

  1. She wrote a beautiful poem.
  2. They sold their old car.
  3. The police havecaught the thief.
  4. Birds lay eggs.
  5. He iscleaning his teeth.
  6. My father bought me a new bike.
  7. I sent him a parcel.
  8. Will he lend you his camera?
  9. The painter showed them his paitings.
  10. Granny told us a story.

Note:-   In the above sentences, the words in bold type are indirect objects and those in italic are direct objects.

Intransitive Verb

A verb which has no object or a verb that does not take a direct object is called an intransitive verb. In other words, it can be said that a verb which conveys a complete sense or meaning without the help of an object. Intransitive verb does not form the passive form of verb.

Some common intransitive verbs are belong, cry, die, swim, wait, wander, smile, run, fly, crawl, yell, walk etc.

Examples:

  1. They slept well.
  2. The baby is crying at the moment.
  3. Boys are walking.
  4. She runs very fast.
  5. The soldiers stopped suddenly.
  6. The water boils.
  7. He died of cancer.
  8. Birds are flying in the air.
  9. They are writing very slowly.
  10. It is raining now..

Examples of verbs which can be used both transitively and intransitively.

                   Transitive Use                     Intransitive Use
Boys are playing football. Our players played very well today.
She wrote a poem. He writes well.
She always speaks the truth. They spoke loudly.
She boiled vegetables. Water boils.
We ate pizza last night. They ate hungrily.
She speaks English. She speaks politely.
You drive a car. You drive carelessly.

4. Finite and Non-Finite Verbs

Finite Verb

A verb which changes its form when there is a change in the number or person of the subject or there is a change in the tense is called a finite verb.

Note:-  When there is a verb phrase which usually consists of one or more than one halping verbs plus action verb, then the helping verb or the first helping verb is a finite verb. Verb forms of Simple Present and Simple Past are common examples of finite verbs.

Examples:

  1. We love our country.
  2. He loves his country.
  3. They loved their country.
  4. I do not waste my precious time.
  5. She does not waste her time.
  6. You did not waste your time.
  7. She will serve the guests.
  8. I shall teach you English.
  9. They are drinking tea,
  10. He was growing vegetables.
  11. We have done our duty.
  12. She has cleaned her teeth.
  13. They had bought a sailing boat.
  14. He has been driving for two hours.
  15. He was being caught by the police.

The verbs in bold type in the sentences above are finite verbs.

Non-Finite Verb

A verb which does not change its form when there is a change in the number or person of the subject or there is a change in the tense is called a nonfinite verb.

Note:-  When there is a verb phrase which usually consists of one or more than one halping verbs plus action verb, then the helping verb or the first helping verb is a finite verb where as the rest of the helping verbs and the action verbs are non-finite verbs for they remain unchanged.

Verb forms of Present Participle, Past Participle, Infinitive and Gerund are common examples of non-finite verbs as they are not affected by any change in the number or person of the subject.

Examples:

  1. She will teach us.
  2. They are playing football.
  3. She was singing a national song.
  4. Boys will be sitting in the library.
  5. To swim in the river is difficult.
  6. Reading is good hobby.
  7. She has won the nobel prize.
  8. They have been watching television for an hour.
  9. Who has broken these furniture?
  10. They do not live here.
  11. It began to rain suddenly.
  12. I shall have been doing my work.
  13. Swimming is a good exercise.
  14. She is interested in reading short stories.
  15. She has been invited to the party.

5. Regular and Irregular Verbs

Regular Verbs

Verbs which form their past and past participle forms by adding –d or –ed are called regular verbs.

In other words, it can be said that these verbs follow a specific pattern to form their past and past participle.

Examples:

Present Past Past Participle
ask accuse
admit agree bake blame believe call climb consist defeat destroy finish graze hate include join offer print remove reject satisfy scream talk transfer try unite urge vote want watch waste
asked accused admitted agreed baked blamed believed called climbed consisted defeated destroyed finished grazed hated included joined offered printed removed rejected satisfied screamed talked transferred tried united urged voted wanted watched wasted asked accused admitted agreed baked blamed believed called climbed consisted defeated destroyed finished grazed hated included joined offered printed removed rejected satisfied screamed talked transferred tried united urged voted wanted watched wasted

Irregular Verbs

Verbs which form their past and past participle forms in different ways are called irregular verbs.

Contrary to regular verbs, the irregular verbs do not follow a specific pattern or rule but different patterns or rules.

Examples:

Present Past Past Participle
awake beat become bite blow break buy do drink drive eat fall feel fly forget give go grow know lie lose make ride ring rise run see shake sing sink speak steal take tear write awoke beat became bit blew broke bought did drank drove ate fell felt flew forgot gave went grew knew lay lost made rode rang rose ran saw shook sang sank spoke stole took tore wrote awoken beaten become bitten blown broken bought done drunk driven eaten fallen felt flown forgotten given gone grown known lain lost made ridden rung risen run seen shaken sung sunk spoken stolen taken torn written